Hispanic Migration and Urban Development by Enrique S. Pumar download in iPad, ePub, pdf
Puerto Rico, like Mexico, had never been able to develop a growing economy for its residents. And, because of intermarriage, there are descendants who represent a combination of several origins. Only a very small number of them could speak any English, and their educational level was generally lower than that of previous arrivals. This period marked the transition for many African Americans from lifestyles as rural farmers to urban industrial workers.
Portrait of Ethnic Diversity Hispanics today form the fastest-growing ethnic minority in the United States. In the years after the American Civil War, Mexicans began crossing into Texas to work the cotton harvests. Cities that had been virtually all white at the start of the century became centers of black culture and politics by mid-century. Unofficially it was called the bracero program.
The families also tend to be larger. The more recent migration, however, may change the success rate and income levels of Puerto Ricans. Other Hispanics have tended to disperse themselves around the country. The war was ended by the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, in which the United States promised to protect the rights of Mexican Americans in the newly won territories.
Cuban Americans live in most major cities in the United States. Most of the treaty's provisions, unfortunately, were not honored by the United States. By the late s and s, African Americans were hyper-urban, more densely concentrated in inner cities than other groups.
Many of the migrants returned to Mexico after each season was over, but others stayed to wait for the next season or to look for better-paying jobs. As residents of both city and suburb, Cubans have been more economically successful than other Hispanics. This self-awareness was reinforced by continued migration from Mexico. It is the longest border in the world separating dire poverty from unparalleled affluence and opportunity. In the case of Hispanic groups, the Americanization process has been uneven.
This restored the favorable status Cuban refugees had enjoyed before and allowed their processing to start within six weeks. Puerto Ricans have also been seasonal, migrant workers along the East Coast and in the Midwest. The heartland of this population is within the city of Miami.
Later arrivals for the most part consisted of those allowed to leave by the Cuban government. Members of the second generation do more than learn to speak English well. The Mexican Americans of the Southwest were gradually overwhelmed in numbers by Anglo newcomers from the East. The uncertain status of the Marielitos lasted until Oct. The Cuban Refugee Resettlement Program provided them with financial assistance and help in finding housing.
Mexican Americans Today's Mexican Americans are a product of historical development that began more than four centuries ago, when Spain conquered Mexico and made it a colony. The cigar business created a small middle class.
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