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This problem is reduced, but not eliminated, by the use of low- modulus materials, including titanium and its alloys. Alternatively, fractured bones may be treated by the Ilizarov method which is a form of an external fixator. When the initial post-fracture oedema or swelling goes down, the fracture may be placed in a removable brace or orthosis. Sometimes bones are reinforced with metal. Occasionally, bone grafting is used to treat a fracture.

This problem is reduced but

Stress shielding occurs when plates or screws carry too large of a portion of the bone's load, causing atrophy. The metal ions produced can damage the bone locally and may cause systemic effects as well. To this end, a fractured limb usually is immobilized with a plaster or fibreglass cast or splint that holds the bones in position and immobilizes the joints above and below the fracture. If dissimilar metals are installed in contact with one another i.

For this reason, open fractures and osteotomies call for very careful antiseptic procedures and prophylactic use of antibiotics.

Alternatively fractured bones may be